Obesity a Mere Cosmetic
Concern or a Serious Disease?

Obesity has been considered as a mere cosmetic concern since long. However, American Medical Association (AMA) opened
the doors of a completely new world by declaring that obesity is a disease in 2013.

Obesity is regarded as a complicated disease that involves the accumulation of excessive body fat which leads to BMI more
than the normal standards. Consequently, it leads to reduced quality of lifestyle and increased morbidity and mortality.
Furthermore, it is closely related to several other chronic diseases such as diabetes, hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, stroke, breast & colon cancer, infertility and in some cases degenerative arthritis.

Such alarming statistics calls for proper treatment of the disease.

Obesity is a disease

What is the General
Cause of Obesity?

Obesity refers to an imbalance of consumption and utilization of
energy; positive energy balance. It is not all about eating habits and
physical activity, rather the obesity paradox is multifactorial. The
causes of disturbed energy balance vary from being physical,
psychological, metabolic, and neurological to hormonal
impairments. Such a vast pathological framework requires a careful
diagnosis and treatment to head back to healthy life style.

What impact obesity Can cause on your life?

Obesity casts a strong impact on various aspects of one’s life. The health of an obese person is affected on three
levels; psychological, mechanical, and metabolic.

Obesity has a strong bi-directional link with mental health. Poor self-image due to obesity instils social withdrawal
and constant depression and anxiety leading to an unhealthier lifestyle contributing to factors causing obesity.

Mechanical impact of obesity accounts for joints and back pain, sleep apnea, and decreased physical activity.
Whereas, metabolic impacts caused by the fat accumulated in the body include risks of diabetes, blood pressure
and elevated cholesterol levels etc.

Some Other Facts You About Obesity

Contrary to the conventional image of obesity, the paradox of obesity is much more than exercise and eating habits. Hence, avoiding/ treating
obesity involves managing the energy balance via physical exertion and basal activity, improvement of lifestyle standards via behavioral therapies and proper physical activity routines.

Breaking it down into more details.

Obesity roots from your lifestyle

Your lifestyle has a major effect on your health condition. Poor lifestyle and food choices are counted as major contributing factors to obesity
which effects your life in the long run. Obesity is a growing health concern especially the young adults. Accurate assessment of lifestyle habits
is important to know the age specific intervention strategies that can prevent and reduce obesity progression.

Obesity is a disease

Lifestyle Modifications

Psychological therapies aid in improving the mental health and
consequently improve daily life routine; healthy diet, physical activity
and weight management.

Mere lifestyle improvement helps in reducing total body weight up
to 5% and lowers the disease load by 50%.

Physical treatments such as bariatric & laparoscopy wear off the
burden of extra weight and makes it easier to perform physical
activity and maintain a healthy lifestyle.

Physical therapy such as exercise at moderate levels (23 mins)
reduces hypertension and increases your cardiovascular conditions.
For weight management, physical exertion is extended to 45 minutes.
Increasing the duration of exercise up to 60min to 90min
brings out the actual benefits of weight loss.

A general Overview
About the Anti-obesity Drugs

There are certain medicines that are used to fight obesity:

  • Orlistat: It is used to suppress the lipase
    enzyme, that will cause the oil malabsorption
  • Lorcaserin: serotonin stimulation
    but it can cause cancer
  • Liraglutide: GLP 1 analogue
  • Start BMI>30, goal 5% TBW weight loss over 3 months
  • Phenteramine/ Topiramate: Increased NEP and Dop
    that will lead to suppressed hunger and cravings, it can
    also cause reduced anxiety. It is good for migraines.
  • Naltrexone/ Bupripion: Naltrexone opioid antagonist
    that can reduce cravings and Bupripion reuptake
    inhibitors can help to stimulate POMC, this treatment
    regimen is good for smokers.

What Physiological Changes a Person go
Through after going under the Bariatric Surgery?

Obesity is a disease

Bariatric surgery can enable people going through severe obesity to lose weight. For the same reason, it is becoming quite popular all over the world. Bariatric surgery is the most-effective weight loss procedure. That can help to fight obesity. It is a major health concern all over the Globe. But Bariatric surgery alone is not enough and a person needs committed behavioral and lifestyle changes for maintaining the ideal weight.

Obesity can be controlled in the following
ways, by making the following changes

Starting losing weight with lifestyle: 5%
Pharmacotherapy role in losing weight: 3 to 8%

Role of Bariatric surgery in losing weight

  • Sleeve gastrectomy 26-30%
  • Gastric Bypass 29-34%

Weight regain in 5 years can happen if proper lifestyle changes aren’t made.

How to Maintain Energy Balance?

Food choices, eating stimuli, Social dining and Stress/ comfort eating can let the energy in, and then that energy will be stored in the energy storage house, energy can be stored in white adipose tissue and brown adipose tissue. Then, with the basal activity, physical exertion and thermal heat production energy is out.

What you need to know about Hypothalamus and Energy balance?

The GIT plays an important role in Energy balance with coordination with Hypothalamus, fat tissue, pancreas can send feedback to arcurate nucleus.

Accurate nucleus controls PVN hypothalamus.

Hypothalamus controls energy in and out balance properly.

NPY AgRP helps to stimulate appetite

POMC helps to suppress appetite