These are surgeries done to treat obesity and diabetes. The surgeries are done on the stomach and digestive system and the body fat is not removed in these surgeries. The common bariatric surgeries include Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy, Laparoscopic Classis Gastric Bypass (Roux-Y), and the Laparoscopic Mini-Gastric Bypass (also called one-anastomosis bypass). These procedures are the standard of care and are offered by ALSA Pakistan. These surgeries are done laparoscopically through small key-holes without the need to make a large cut. Hence patients have less pain and are able to recover quickly from the surgery.

Effects of Bariatric Surgeries

All procedures initially lead to a restriction in the volume of food that can be eaten; however, in the long term they modulate the hormone balance in the body that is controlling our desire to eat and burn energy. As a result of these surgeries patients feel less hungry, gain satisfaction after eating smaller amounts of foods and are able to better burn off the energy from food.

Benefits of Bariatric surgery

Bariatric surgery leads to burning of the fat stores and body weight loss. The amount of weight lost varies depending on an individual’s hormone balance and type of body fat. Some individuals respond with rapid dissolution of their fat stores while others are slow responders. While most people are able to lose upper body fat rapidly, lower body fat takes a longer time to dissolve. On the average people are able to lose about 70% of their extra body weight or 30-40% of their total body weight over the course of a year since their surgery. Other benefits of the surgery include a dramatic improvement in the blood sugars or diabetes. Between 60-80% of diabetic patients will not need the diabetic medications after these surgeries while the remaining will only need a fraction of their original medications.

Other diseases such blood pressure, high cholesterol, joint and low back pains and sleep apnea show great improvements as well. Some females who are not able to get pregnant due to ovarian cysts respond remarkably after these surgeries and are able to have normal pregnancies after the weight loss. A lot of people are disabled from severe low back pains and joint pains and are unable to exercise due to their weight, after having these surgeries the weight loss has a significant improvement in the quality of their lives. Most people who have this surgery wish they had done it earlier.
Other changes induced by these surgeries include a healthy change in food preferences so that after surgery individuals prefer less caloric dense foods such as baked and grilled foods or salads and avoid high caloric dense foods such as fast foods, fried foods, and soft beverages.

Side-effects of bariatric surgery

After bariatric surgery some foods may lead to undesired side effects such as the dumping syndrome. This includes the feelings of dizziness, fast heart-beat, sweating and desire to lay down that occurs after eating a very sweet food or desert such as ice-cream, sweets, sugary drinks or even white breads. Dumping syndrome may occur in a third of patients having a bariatric procedure. The symptoms do not happen with healthy food choices and so can be avoided by making the right food choices. With reduced food intake and increased weight loss, it is necessary after these surgeries to take a daily multivitamin and daily calcium supplement to maintain good health and avoid vitamin deficiencies.

Types of Bariatric Surgery