Overview of Chronic Acid Reflux

A Detailed Overview of Chronic Acid Reflux Causes & Treatment

Overview of Chronic Acid Reflux

GERD stands for gastroesophageal reflux disease, a common condition that indicates a burning feeling in the chest, often called acidity & heartburn. If the feeling prolongs, the condition is gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). Reflux specifically occurs when the acidic contents of the stomach travel back up the esophagus. Hence, it may also be denoted as acid regurgitation. Initially, the doctor attempts to treat GERD with diet and lifestyle change and diet, but the last treatment option for chronic acid reflux is GERD surgery. About 24% population in Pakistan suffers from GERD. Hence, there are some top-notch treatment options available with affordable GERD surgery cost in Pakistan. Let’s get deep into Overview of Chronic Acid Reflux in the following.

Causes of GERD

According to health professionals, there is no single cause specified for GERD. However, the main reason for stomach contents to move up into the esophagus is weakening the lower esophageal sphincter/valve. In normal conditions, the valve opens when you ingest something and closes afterward. Conversely, with GERD, the valve fails to close afterward. Consequently, the stomach fails to retain the contents, and it travels upwards, causing the uneasy feeling of heartburn or even.

Now, the main concern is to unravel what causes the valve to relax when it should not. Following are some of the factors that may play a role in chronic acid reflux. 

  • Pressure on the abdomen, especially after the food intake, may cause reflux. For the same reason, it is common among pregnant women daily due to the increased pressure on the abdomen.
  • Excessive intake of a certain type of food increases the risk of acquiring GERD. For example, spicy & fried foods, coffee, dairy products, and acid-containing foods like tomatoes and oranges.
  • Certain eating habits also give way to acid reflux, such as eating large meals or laying down right after consuming a meal. However, it is best to wait for at least 2 – 3 hours after the meal. Similarly, late-night snacking serves nothing but heartburn.

Symptoms of GERD

Whatever the reason, you must know the symptoms of chronic acid reflux to treat it in time. After all, the introduction of GERD won’t be complete without mentioning the symptoms. Therefore, if you have developed GERD, you must be facing some of the following symptoms.

  • Chest pain
  • Bloating and sick feeling
  • Problems while swallowing
  • Regurgitation
  • Sore throat
  • Vomiting
  • Coughing
  • Feeling such as food is stuck in the throat.

Another major risk factor is hiatal hernia for GERD because a part of the stomach moves up into the chest area, compromising the diaphragm. Consequently, this condition of the stomach increases the risk of GERD.

Even the children and infants may also suffer from GERD. However, the symptoms are slightly different in children from the symptoms mentioned above. Therefore, you must be worried about the following conditions:

  • Respiratory or breathing problems
  • Frequently sour acid taste
  • Bad breath
  • Difficulty in sleeping after having a meal
  • Frequent episodes of vomiting

Notably, some people confuse heartburn with heart attack as both the symptoms are observed in the chest. However, it has nothing to do with heart disease. For example, chronic acid reflux is a feeling of burning or pain in the chest, and it moves up to the neck and throat. Conversely, a heart attack is indicated by pain in the chest and pain in the arms, neck & jaw, shortness of breath, dizziness, anxiety, sweating, nausea, and extreme fatigue.

Moreover, there has been a strong link established between asthma and GERD. Statistics indicate that 75% of asthma patients suffer from GERD as well.

Treatment options for GERD

As it is a progressive disease, health professionals adopt different methods of treatment depending upon the severity of the patient’s condition. Some of the GERD treatment options are discussed below.

Lifestyle and Diet change 

Most health professionals prefer the lifestyle and diet change before any medication or laparoscopic anti-reflux surgery in Pakistan. Concerning the causes mentioned above and risks of GERD, abiding by the following eating habits and lifestyle changes may help with the acidity & heartburn cure.

  • You must avoid consuming foods that relax the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). For example, fatty foods, peppermint, chocolate, caffeine, alcoholic beverages, citrus fruits and juices, tomatoes, and pepper.
  • Tobacco also relaxes LES. Therefore, if you suffer from chronic acid reflux, smoking is not your type of fun.
  • It would help if you ate slowly with small portions of the meal at a time. Moreover, you must ensure that you take your last meal at least 2 to 3 hours before going to bed.
  • Sometimes, elevating your head side also helps relieve the heartburn. Therefore, you may try raising your head about 6 inches, or you can also try sleeping on a wedge especially designed for GERD patients.
  • Manage your healthy weight and wear loose clothes.


The main goal for treating GERD with medicines is to reduce the acid reflux amount or control the damage caused by the esophagus lining due to reflux materials. Some of the most commonly used medications for heartburn cure include antacids, H2 blockers, Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), prokinetics, etc. However, these medicines differ in their mode of action. Hence, the doctors prescribe these medicines depending upon your condition.

Anti-reflux surgery 

Once you have tried both the treatment mentioned above for chronic acid reflux and continue to suffer, you have probably encountered severe GERD. Consequently, for the ultimate solution to severe GERD, you must go for advanced laparoscopic surgical services. Or the other surgical options available are as follows.

Fundoplication: during the surgery, doctors elevate the pressure on your lower esophagus by winding the top part of your stomach over the LES. Hence, they tighten the muscles of LES and create pressure on the valve. This procedure can be observed via open surgery, or it may be the laparoscopic anti-reflux surgery that includes an endoscope. Undoubtedly, laparoscopic surgery is the least invasive option for GERD surgery in Pakistan.

Stretta: Your surgeon inserts a small-sized tube down the esophagus, which is used to reshape the LES with low radiofrequency.

LINX surgery: This treatment includes wrapping a magnetic titanium beads band around the junction of the stomach and esophagus. The attraction among the magnetic beads keeps the valve loose enough to pass the food down to the stomach and tighten enough to restrict chronic acid reflux.


He makes a thorough diagnosis of the symptoms. Then, after the test results, the laparoscopic hernia surgeon in Pakistan takes a close look and makes recommendations for surgical candidates. Therefore, if you opt for affordable hernia mesh prices in Pakistan, he guarantees the safest hernia repair surgery, and you will be able to resume your routine the next day.

What is worse?

If all the treatment mentioned above options fails to relieve the condition, it may worsen with time. For example, it may lead to further complications such as esophageal ulcer, stricture, Barrett’s esophagus, etc. Furthermore, it may also lead to several lung problems such as chest congestion, postnasal drip, bronchitis, asthma, lingering cough, pneumonia, etc.

Surgery costs

No doubt, patients avoid surgery at any cost. However, if you fail to control the symptoms with diet & lifestyle changes, and medication, surgery is the last option. High-quality laparoscopic anti-reflux sire costs a fortune. The charges for the surgery may range between 200 000 to approximately 300,000 PKR in Pakistan.