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Metabolic surgery
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Important things to know about the treatment of metabolic diseases

Have you spent years trying to lose weight by dieting and exercising without any success? Weight loss seems impossible for some individuals. The complex nature of our bodies is the reason, which hinders the weight loss process and even results in weight gain.

Losing weight can improve health, quality of life, have more energy to perform everyday activities, and better sleep. But if you are obese, you are at risk of many life-threatening health conditions.

 

Metabolic surgery

Metabolic surgery

Metabolic surgeries are surgical procedures for the treatment of the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a disorders of metabolism that occur together. These are caused by obesity, increase in age, genetic factors, and physical inactivity. These risk factors increase the chance of developing heart diseases, Diabetes Mellitus, and stroke. Metabolic surgical procedures are the treatment of metabolic diseases.

Metabolic surgeries should be recommended for patients with uncontrolled diabetes and are obese but unable to lose weight even after exercise and diet control. 

Types of metabolic surgery

Studies prove that metabolic surgical procedures are the helpful treatment of metabolic diseases. Following are some of these surgeries.

Laparoscopic Roux-Y Gastric Bypass

For over 50 years, Laparoscopic Roux-Y Gastric Bypass has been performed on patients with metabolic diseases and face serious health issues but cannot lose weight.

In this surgical procedure gastrointestinal (GI) tract is altered, and a small pouch is created from the stomach. In this way food eaten enters directly into the small intestine by avoiding most of the stomach and upper part of the small intestine.

In this way, patients lose weight and improve diabetes. Improvement in diabetes in patients occurs within weeks or days post-surgery. This operation changes the metabolism and hormones in the intestine.

Gastric Bypass Surgery

In Gastric Bypass Surgery, the stomach is divided into two parts: the upper smaller portion and the lower larger portion. In the upper smaller portion or pouch, eaten food will enter. This portion is small enough to hold only 1-ounce food.

This pouch of the stomach is then attached to a small portion of small intestine, called the jejunum. The food eaten will enter the pouch of the stomach than go to the small intestine. In this way, the body will absorb fewer calories.

 

Laparoscopic Mini Gastric Bypass

The Laparoscopic Mini Gastric Bypass is technically easier and quicker to perform. It also has a lower rate of post-op complications as compared to traditional gastric bypass.

This procedure

  • reduces the size of the stomach
  • restrict the amount of food
  • absorption by bypassing up to 6 feet of the small intestine

Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy

In Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy lower part of the stomach is taken out.  This restriction leaves a sleeve of the stomach, just like a banana. Because of the smaller size of the stomach, the patient will eat less.

 

 

Benefits of metabolic surgery

Effect on weight loss

Patients that undergo metabolic surgical procedures experience significant and long-term weight loss. 70-80% of patients achieve weight loss after 18-24 months post-surgery.

 

Effect on gastrointestinal hormones

Metabolic surgical operations have complex effects on the gastrointestinal hormones, which control the blood glucose level. Excess glucose passes from the blood into the urine and activates a filtration process that draws a large number of fluids from the body. This process leads to dehydration which could be life-threatening.  Metabolic surgical procedures control the hormones which activate this process and permanent treatment of metabolic diseases.

Better quality of life

Patients who undergo metabolic surgeries experience a better quality of life than those who spent their lives longer medical treatments. One-third of these patients get rid of the medicines they were taking for metabolic diseases.

Metabolic surgeries and Diabetes Mellitus

According to the American Society for metabolic and bariatric Surgery (ASMBS), obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are metabolic problems. Metabolic surgeries affect the gastrointestinal hormones, and the patient’s body regains the ability to use glucose healthily. So, this change leads to weight loss after surgery and remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Many trials conducted over the years prove that patients can regain the ability to use glucose healthily after metabolic surgical procedures.

One of such trials is the Diabetes Surgery Study Randomized Clinical Trial, published in JAMA in 2013. In this trial, patients with BMIs between 30 and 39 were studied. It reported that 49% of 60 patients regain the normal value of HbA1c, cholesterol, and blood pressure after 12 months.

Hence, metabolic surgeries are the most effective and permanent treatment of metabolic diseases. These surgeries are effective in the improvement of glucose levels in obese and non-obese individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.